Remote Robotic Surgery
A telesurgical system, also known as remote surgery, requires the surgeon to manipulate the robotic arms during the procedure rather than allowing the robotic arms to work from a predetermined program. Using real-time image feedback, the surgeon is able to operate from a remote location using sensor data from the robot. Because the robot is still technically performing the procedure, it is considered a subgroup of robotic surgery.

Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. It is a form of telepresence. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections and elements of management information systems. While the field of robotic surgery is fairly well established, most of these robots are controlled by surgeons at the location of the surgery. Remote surgery is essentially advanced telecommuting for surgeons, where the physical distance between the surgeon and the patient is immaterial. It promises to allow the expertise of specialized surgeons to be available to patients worldwide, without the need for patients to travel beyond their local hospital.

MAKO RIO Robotic Arm for Orthopedic Surgeries
The RIO™ Robotic Arm Interactive Orthopedic System and the RESTORIS® MCK MultiCompartmental Knee System make bone and tissue sparing MAKOplasty® partial knee resurfacing available to a larger population of patients. Previously, it was only possible to perform this precision resurfacing surgery on the medial (inner) portion of the knee. Now it can be performed on the medial, patellofemoral (top) or both components of the knee, offering a large and growing population of patients with early to mid-stage osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee a less invasive treatment option than total knee replacement.

“The field of medical robotics is coming of age, and MAKO is committed to leading the way in orthopedic surgery,” said Dr. Maurice R. Ferré, President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the MAKO Board of Directors. “The advancement of our technology with RIO™ and RESTORIS® MCK allows a greater number of patients with osteoarthritis to benefit from the precision and improved outcomes of MAKOplasty®. ”

Da Vinci Surgical System for Prostate Cancer Surgeries
Robotic surgery for prostate cancer allows surgeons to effectively and precisely treat prostate cancer with numerous benefits. The minimally invasive nature of the da Vinci Robot allows a variety of benefits to patients at USMD Prostate Cancer Center, including:

  • Nerve-Sparing Techniques used to help preserve urinary and erectile functions after surgery
  • Reduced post-operative pain
  • Reduced risk of infection
  • Lower potential blood loss
  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Quicker and more complete recovery
  • More rapid return to everyday activities

Further, the da Vinci system allows experienced surgeons to extend their expertise and utilize the following technological elements through robot-assisted surgery:

  • Enhanced 3-D analysis of the surgical area
  • Improved dexterity
  • Enhanced surgical precision
  • Amplified range of motion

ZEUS Surgical System for Coronary Bypass Surgeries
The ZEUS System by Computer Motion is another surgical robot in the process of being cleared by the FDA. The system is already being used in Europe and is showing promising results. In fact, the ZEUS system has already been used to perform coronary bypass surgery in Germany.

The ZEUS System at $750,000 is less expensive than the Da Vinci Surgical System, which costs around $1 million.

The ZEUS® Surgical System is made up of an ergonomic surgeon control console and three table-mounted robotic arms, which perform surgical tasks and provide visualization during endoscopic surgery. Seated at an ergonomic console with an unobstructed view of the OR, the surgeon controls the right and left arms of ZEUS, which translate to real-time articulation of the surgical instruments. A third arm incorporates the AESOP® Endoscope Positioner technology, which provides the surgeon with magnified, rock-steady visualization of the internal operative field.

Peerless voice control capabilities allow the surgeon to precisely guide the movements of the endoscope with simple spoken commands, freeing the surgeon's hands to manipulate the robotic surgical instrument handles. ZEUS custom scales the movement of these handles and filters out hand tremor, enabling surgeons with greater capability to perform complex micro-surgical tasks.

Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning
The AESOP or the Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning by Computer motion was the first surgical robot to be approved by the FDA. Its main feature is its mechanical arm that can be utilized by the surgeon to accurately position the endoscope. Through the use of foot pedals and voice activated software, a surgeon can keep his hands free to perform surgery on the patient.

  • AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning) is a robotic arm that holds an endoscope (a device containing a tiny camera) and is programmed to instantaneously respond to the surgeon’s voice.
  • AESOP’s robotic arm holds the endoscope with a steadiness that no human can match.
  • With AESOP, the surgeon uses smaller incisions, thus eliminating the need for sternotomy (cutting the chest and pulling the ribs apart to gain access to the heart), reducing trauma and facilitating quicker recovery.


Mechanical (Parts)

Robotic Surgical Instruments
This system consists of three main components:
  • The InSite™ Vision System which gives our surgeons a true minimally invasive 3-D view of the surgical field.
  • The Surgical Cart with the EndoWrist™ Instruments. The EndoWrist Instruments are designed to mimic the movement of the (surgeon’s) human hands, wrists, and fingers.
  • The Surgeon Console which contains the master controls our surgeons use to manipulate the EndoWrist Instruments.

Here are some specific features and functions of each component:
  • The EndoWrist Instruments reproduce the exact movements of the (surgeon’s) human hand, wrists, and fingers and extend the normal human range of motion, allowing for more precise suturing (stitching), dissection, and tissue manipulation.
  • The InSite™ Vision System includes dual 3-chip digital cameras that take surgery "inside" the patient. It is the only system with true 3-D vision that offers enhanced depth of field and resolution. The 3-D image is aligned over the master controls, providing natural hand-eye coordination that is inherent in open surgery.
  • The surgeon actually operates from the Surgeon Console, which contains both the video monitor showing the 3-D image and the master controls used to manipulate the EndoWrist instruments.

Electrical (Mechanism)

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    Robotic Surgery System
    The surgeon works at the computer console. There is an O.R. team by the patient's bed, along with the robotic equipment.
  2. The doctor makes tiny incisions about the size of a dime and guides the robotic arms with attached instruments and a tiny camera through the incisions (or "ports").
  3. At the computer console, the surgeon looks through a camera which magnifies the organs and other structures inside the body by 10x. By comparison, most laparoscopic surgeries provide doctors with 4x magnification.
  4. The surgeon can change the surgical view instantly, using foot pedals to zoom in and out.
  5. The movement of the surgeon's fingers is transmitted via the computer console to the instruments on the robotic arms. These instruments mimic the movements of the surgeon's hands and wrists. They have the same 360-degree range of motion that the surgeon has. This gives the doctor an ambidextrous capability and terrific surgical precision.
  6. The surgeon is always in control, sitting at the console a few feet from the patient.