The first release of Robotic Operation that approved by the FDA is called AESOP 1000 released on December 1993 and it become the first surgical visual aid in robotic device using the foot pedals, although it's easy to control for well trained surgeons but the problem they found, the doctors had to look down to the pedals while going the operation and that causes of destruction.

Consumption and Maintenance:

  • CAS – Computer assisted surgery: it is used both in Robotic surgery process on planning and registration. The surgeon will run a practice session “dry run” before the actual operation to make sure the precautions sequences for avoiding mistake on actual operation. also known as image-guided surgery, surgical navigation, and 3-D computer surgery, is any computer-based procedure that uses technologies such as 3D imaging and real-time sensing in the planning, execution and follow-up of surgical procedures. CAS allows for better visualization and targeting of sites as well as improved diagnostic capabilities, giving it a significant advantage over conventional techniques.

o Robotic Surgery - on the other hand, requires the use of a surgical robot, which may or may not involve the direct role of a surgeon during the procedure. A robot defined as a computerized system with a motorized construction (usually an arm) capable of interacting with the environment. In its most basic form, it contains sensors, which provide feedback data on the robot’s current situation, and a system to process this information so that the next action can be determined and it’s divided on 3 subcategories. Depending on the degree’s operation.

  1. Supervisory-controlled - the procedure is executed solely by the robot, which will act according to the computer program that the surgeon inputs into it prior to the procedure. The surgeon is still indispensable in planning the procedure and overseeing the operation, but does not partake directly. Because the robot performs the entire procedure, it must be individually programmed for the surgery, making it extremely expensive to gather several images and data for one patient.
  2. Telesurgical system - also known as remote surgery, requires the surgeon to manipulate the robotic arms during the procedure rather than allowing the robotic arms to work from a predetermined program. Using real-time image feedback, the surgeon is able to operate from a remote location using sensor data from the robot. Because the robot is still technically performing the procedure, it is considered a subgroup of robotic surgery. The da Vinvi® Surgical System, the current leading device in this field, belongs to this section of robotic surgery.
  3. Shared – Control System - has the most surgeon involvement. The surgeon carries out the procedure with the use of a robot that offers steady-hand manipulations of the instrument. This enables both entities to jointly perform the tasks.

Before the
Robotic surgery process going in process its requires the use of computer imaging to diagnose and perform the operation. These imaging modalities can generate either 3-D figures through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or 2-D ones through ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, and X-ray radiography. Out of the various methods of imaging, the main one in use is computer tomography (CT).

o One key advantage of robotic surgery over computer-assisted is its accuracy and ability to repeat identical motions.

Useful Life:

By enhancing surgical capabilities, Intuitive products are helping to improve clinical outcomes and redefine standards of care. Patients may experience the following benefits:

  • Reduced trauma to the body
  • Reduced blood loss and need for transfusions
  • Less post-operative pain and discomfort
  • Less risk of infection
  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Faster recovery and return to normal daily activities
  • Less scarring and improved cosmesis